Hot Glass Bits #25

Contact Mike Firth

April 3 - May 31, 1995

Prev.Issue 24 Link to HGB Table of Contents Next Issue 26


GAS Conference 1995 in Asheville with pictures

This issue contains no deadline information [capitalized KEYWORD starts a paragraph below] Known hot glass class sites: 01002, 04627, 14830, 11217, 43216, 70130, 75253, 76028, 98144, 98292 Would like to know of others

Hot Glass Bits is a personal chronological record of my wanderings through glassblowing and the bits and pieces of knowledge I gather along the way. It includes things I try, thoughts I have, information I receive, and reports on things I do. In many ways it is an edited diary and events calendar about glassblowing. If it is useful to others, it is worth the effort. It is normally closed near the end of the odd numbered months and mailed soon after.

WHOAMI? - Mike Firth is a 52 year old, low experience glassblower who signed up for his first class in '91 without having seen anyone blow, although he had seen TV shows, and had done stained glass and worked clear tubing in the past. He has built cheap equipment in his back yard to learn and practice. When not blowing, he is a married self-employed computer programmer and teacher about computers.

Vision Thing: I can encourage more glassblowing in Texas by producing, at relatively low cost, a newsletter which shares information about glassblowing in Texas and in general and by providing copies to all people known to have an interest in Texas.

The legal stuff: Working glass is inherently dangerous, involving heavy materials that can be razor sharp, so hot that damage can be done before feeling occurs, with chemicals immediately poisonous, dusts that can damage the lungs, and heat sources that can wreck the eyes. Understand the safe practices required and use them to blow beautiful glass.


WRONG YEAR - As I was laying out this issue, #25, I discovered that the year under the masthead for mailed copies of #24 and #23 was printed as 1994, rather than the correct one, 1995. Sorry. 4/3/95

JUNCTION EXPERIENCE - A total of 6 weeks of glassblowing is available in 1995 at Junction, Texas, as part of the summer arts graduate program of Texas Tech University. Advanced Hot Glass, with Bill Bagley, runs from June 4 to June 23 and can be taken for either two or three weeks. Beginning/Intermediate Hot Glass, with Bob Mosier, will be July 16-28 and Glass Problems, also with Bob, will run the week of July 30 - August 4. The classes are probably full, but if you are interested, contact Betty Street, TTU Center at Junction, P.O. Box 186, Junction TX 76849, 915-446-4011, FAX:, 915-446-4011 as quickly as possible for detailed information. But really want to go and are flexible, if the class fills, ask to be put on the waiting list. You may get in quite late. 5/30/95   

INTENSIVES - Horizons, the New England Craft Program, [108-P N. Main Street, , Sunderland MA 01375, 413-665-0300, FAX:, 412-665-4141] has intensives that include Hot Glass. June 17-19 has Kiln-Formed Glass with Newy Fagan, and August 10-13 has Glass Beadmaking: Lampworking with Krista Logan. Longer is August 10- 15 Glassblowing with Melanie Guernsey and a Glassblowing Add-on August 11-12 with Carmen Sasso. Sessions are at Snow Farm, 5 Clary Rd, Williamsburg MA 01096. 2/27/95

GLASS WEEKEND is Friday evening, June 9 thru Sun. June 11 at Wheaton Village, Millville NJ and Cumberland County College, Vineland NJ. Cost per person starts at $275 and includes demos, some meals, lectures, reception, and gallery displays. Sponsored by the Art Alliance for Contemporary Glass, The Creative Glass Center of America and the James Renwick Alliance. Twenty-one different galleries are listed as represented. For information, contact Denise Gonzalez- Dendrinos, CGCA Program Coordinator, Creative Glass Center of America, Wheaton Village, 1501 Glasstown Road, Millville NJ 08332, 609-825-6800 x6800, FAX 609- 825-2410. 4/3/95

GLASS FOCUS April/May 95 [9323 N. Olcott Ave., Morton Grove IL 60053-1752, 708- 967-8433, bimonthly $24] newsletter has an interview with Janusz Wlentynowicz, seven pages of gallery listings, pages on Events & Happenings, Bits and Pieces, books and videos and classes. A page from the Art Alliance for Contemporary Glass describing the GlassWeekend (see above) fulfills its role as official newsletter. Glass Focus is primarily aimed at glass collectors. 4/4/95

SESSION - After building a new gate valve for the blower and repairing the front of the furnace, I had a session today using the short but otherwise regular pipe I bought from Divas. I was melting Art's dark purple cullet, working in bright sunlight, and having problems handling it. Then part of the furnace face fell off. Instead of jiggering with the face again, I should probably finish plans and just rebuild the thing completely. I have so much work to do on the house and garage I should focus on that. But glass is so neat even when it is going wrong. 4/6/95

AMERICAN CRAFT arrived. A topic on artists books makes me ask what glass book looks like? GLASS magazine arrived. 4/8

FURNACE CASTING - ART ALLISON called to tell me he was rebuilding his furnace, if I wanted to come up and help/observe/learn as I asked to last fall. He told me that he had been melting fluorine opal for the last two weeks and had gone right through the bottom of the crucible in several places. The damage showed up when he switched to clear and found it rocky. The timing is bad for Art, since he has an open house planned for the 22nd. It is also tight for me because I have a meeting to run on Saturday, taxes due on Monday to calculate, but I will go up.
4/12/95 Swept my way north and had a good time with a fair amount of learning. Art with an elderly friend Ike had cast the top lid of the furnace by mounding clay in a flat dome and casting a disk inside a metal ring on the ground. The doming evens the heat and stress over the inside surface. They had set the crucible on a big fire brick for a base (with insulating fire brick under that) and used a sheet metal tube to cast around the crucible.
While I was there, the upper part was to be cast. The sheet metal around the base was moved up to form the outside of the upper wall and an inner sheet metal wall was fitted, leaving 1 1/2" between. A clay shape for the door and a tapered clay shape for the burner port were fitted against the wall between the sheets. The material is Mizzou 3000.F castable, which makes up to a material that looks like concrete when done and has about the same conductive qualities as regular fire brick.
The directions for mixing call for 1 1/8 gallon of water for a 100 pound bag. Art added a full gallon and mixed it thoroughly with a hoe in a wheelbarrow (wearing a respirator while any dust was rising.) The result was far more dry & granular than I expected. Art added handfuls of water, mixing after each couple. The area where the water was added became very sloppy until mixing occurred. The package directions call for making a ball and tossing it gently in the air to test; it should not slop through the fingers nor break apart. When we began packing the material in the space, we beat the metal form with wood and PVC rods to settle it and work out bubbles. In spite of its grainy appearance, it settled in and water came to the top. The material only has a stated working time of 20 minutes, although we went on (I think) longer than that, because when the inner metal form began slipping, Art chose to pull it out, scrape the castable into the crucible, replace the form, and refill. We worked steadily and got it to behave. Art showed me the form that he will use to cast the outside of the burner port, an angled tube leading to the hole cast in the wall. He will then wrap the furnace in ceramic fiber and cover that with a sheet metal shell to protect the fiber. The sheet metal shell and the casting forms are both from the previous furnace build.
I was surprised, having worked with concrete, how quickly the material is ready to use. The bag says 24 hours if properly mixed, kept wet and temperature above 60.F. Art said he would fire on Tuesday, taking 24 hours to get up to temperature. The bag says rate should be no more than 75.F per hour with pauses at 250., 500. and 1000. for 1/2 hr/inch thick. So a wall 2" thick (not what Art has) starting at 75. would call for 33 1/3 hours to get to 2350.
Art's plans for the door are interesting. The previous furnace lasted almost 4 years (a long time), during which time he replaced the door material at least 12 times. Each time he had to brick up the opening, remove the hot door, repair the door (cast a new one or mount bricks) and put it back. This time he is making a pair of frames which involve threaded rod so he can adjust the position of the door at the opening. He will have a spare door prepared and when something cracks on the door in use, he will lift it off its pin with hot gloves and set the prepared one in place. This will save working time (up to 2 hours) and reduce the shock on the furnace standing open or partially open while it is being bricked up and the door being repaired. 4/14/95

ART'S GLASS includes some interesting variations. He made a number of capped pitchers where the "lid" was a sphere with a ring around it near the top. He said these were called RISDy shapes at one point because everyone out of the Rhode Island School of Design was putting rings around things. He said the ring is made by collapsing the end of the bubble back on itself and sealing the lip, then inflating the center to match. His lids are made on the pipe with a slightly ground surface on the opening at the neck. His pitchers and lids are matched with lines of color in a netting pattern. From the white glass he mixed (and which helped end the life of the crucible) he made some of his classic shapes with delicate lines of color on the white, some pure white goblets, and several wavy bowls with a color lip wrap. Art is having an open house next Saturday that includes local artists showing their work around his buildings. He says he gets 500 people through the area in the five hours on Saturday afternoon. 4/14/95

GATORADE - Since no one sells salt tablets any more due to the heart risk, the heat relief solution is Gatorade or one of its cousins. As I have mentioned before, I don't much like more common Gatorade flavors (Lemonade, Lemon-Lime, Orange) and I recommend only trying GA when hot & thirsty as it is not a tasty beverage when there isn't a salt need. I also think the cost is too high. Gatorade liquid in my local Albertson's grocery store costs about $3.75/gal in gallon size and $3.39/gal in 1/2 gallon size. Grainger (many local branches) sells 2.5 gallon envelopes of powder at $3.82 - $1.53/gal - and 6 gallon at $7.95 - $1.33/gal. Last year Grainger sold only the flavors I don't like, so I called Gatorade and learned the other flavors are available dry. (Gatorade suggested asking a store that did not have the flavor I wanted for the name of their distributor to find it.) I found one sports place (Dallas Sports) had 1 gallon envelopes at $1.56 each including Fruit Punch. While writing this I looked in the 95 Grainger catalog to get prices and found they are now selling 3 new flavors - Grape, Fruit Punch, and Citrus Cooler. Grainger also sells bottles of concentrate that make 6 gallons ($11.03 $9.93 @ for 4) which might be more convenient for mixing smaller quantities at a slightly higher price ($1.84/gal.) 4/17/95

WALE - A few days ago the new catalog from Wale Apparatus (Box D, Hellertown PA 18055, 610-838-7047, FAX 610-838-7440) arrived with a variety of glass and equipment in lampworking with a new emphasis on beadmaking and supplies. It will give you an idea of cost and they even sell some kits.

POLICY - I have been providing free copies of HB to all known glassblowers in Texas, to share the information and encourage glassblowing. I also send single free copies to glassblowers around the country to spread the news. Many of these people have liked it enough to pay. Recently, when doing taxes, I was surprised to see how much I was spending on HB in a year. If you are getting HB and find it at least an $11 a year value, you would help if you paid this modest fee. If you have paid, the words Paid or Prev.Paid appear on your mailing label. 4/27/95

ANTIQUE NOTES - Blenko's newsletter for April arrived in mid-month with an announcement that it would now be quarterly, next issue in July. Finally it becomes clear what is being encouraged because we have a mention of Blenko's antique style stained glass and a column from Peter McGrain, glass artist, on how he got involved. This issue is still two sides of one page. 4/27/95

GAS 95 ASHEVILLE - GLASS ART SOCIETY [For text with pictures see GAS 95 Asheville NC ]

FIRE ON THE MOUNTAIN - Most of the rest of this issue will be notes and comments from the Glass Art Society 25th Conference, held in Asheville, NC, with studio tours, sessions and discussions and a visit to Penland. The first GAS conference was held in the area and the 10-12 people all meet in a single studio building shown in one of the slides. This year was one of the biggest yet, with up to 750 going to Penland where the previous big event had been about 200. I really enjoy seeing artists from the ads of Glass Magazine, especially when they stop me and say, "Hey, I like your newsletter." Thank you, Josh Simpson.

STUDIO VISITS - Tuesday, Wednesday and part of Thursday were devoted to studio visits in areas progressively closer to the conference site. I arrived for the Wednesday visits and spent the whole day driving around the area near Spruce Pine. I visited almost all the studios which mentioned doing blown glass. Very few of the studios were blowing glass.
The range of styles was amazing from the legendary grunge of Gil Johnson to the neat, trim organization of the Todds. Taking the time to talk to people in their own studios, talking about choices they had made was very nice. Since many of these people had apprenticed, trained with, or assisted other better known or older glassblowers, it was often possible to similarities of equipment in different places. Most of the studios were interesting in some way and ordinary in most ways.
As I arrived Rob Levin was busy finishing cleaning and negotiating with his daughter about how much food would be brought out right away. Rob has done medium scale blowing with lots of opaque color in the past, but has recently been doing similar sized pieces with shades of color and much larger pieces where long (3-4') frosted glass piece is fitted in a burned notch in a log and rope provides tension between the two. One of the latter is the cover for the Blue Spiral 1 "North Carolina Glass Focus" Exhibition brochure. By making his own color he has been able to control the effects he wants and melts in 5 pots. He remarked he was not using the latest technology and his annealer ramping is a motor driving a disk which winds up thread on another disk on the knob of a Variac to reduce the voltage. He was the first of several to mention a technique of folding frax to make a firm insulating layer. More below.
Bill Burnstein is best known for drawing with glass cane on goblets and other objects using a torch on the cane while the goblet is still hot from first blowing. He has now gotten into larger clear objects with pairs of figures formed hot and adhered to the sides. He has served as a resource for the area with many younger artists having done apprenticeships. His NEW FURNACE was under construction, the base done and the interior having been carved from a laminated stack of Styrofoam. After applying ram castable, the foam would be cut out through the access port. Somewhere during the conference, perhaps here, someone said something and I suddenly realized that part of my thinking about VERMICULITE contained an error. Vermiculite is a cheap fluffy material used in gardening which is also used as insulation because it is basically puffed rock. I had always considered using it a design problem because it flows like sand. During a discussion someone casually said they would be applying a very light cement coating of vermiculite and mortar and I realized that any mix would provide the insulation and prevent the flow. I think I even remember hearing years ago of breaking up the old vermiculite insulation and remixing it with mortar. I saw Gil Johnson's legendary grunge studio, now over twenty years old and about to be replaced. It was a prototype of a paper dome treated for waterproofing. It failed very soon after it was installed and was propped up inside with branches so it literally looks like an Indian wigwam inside. It is very small with the furnace in the middle and pathways wide enough for one person between the bags of batch ingredients to an annealer that looks like and opens like a large mailbox and to a standup work bench. Gil makes paperweights. He has purchased and is nearly done installing on a concrete slab a new dome made from metal silo components that include house water heating from the vent heat.
Lorretta Forde provides an example of another kind of survival. After getting involved in glass and assisting and apprenticing and teaching, she had virtually no savings for building her own studio. She was able to get a low interest business loan for $2800 and built a tiny box (10x10) of a studio on land of a school she was teaching at, on condition of teach glassblowing to the students, which she does. Her annealer was a washing machine and she glory hole's off the furnace. Her garden walk includes glass among the plants.
At the other extreme of neatness from Gil's place is the newly expanded studio of Yaffa Sikorsky-Todd and Jeff Todd. They make bright tall (12-15") flowers and millefiori/cane decorated solids and thick pill-shaped vases of trees in the glass. They make their own color bar, stringer, cane and millefiori. Their blowing space, besides being neat and well lighted, is nicely laid out with a split roll away top color pot furnace and roll aside top crystal furnace. Both furnaces have a drain and trap provision so that if a pot cracks the glass will drain downward, to a tray in the color and to a padded access area in the crystal. Frax provides insulation normally and if a drain occurs, collects the glass, which is removed with the frax. The frax is replaced with virtually no downtime and no damage to the brick of the furnace.
Vernon Brejcha, once in Kansas, is now permanently located near Spruce Pine, living and working in a two story former woodworking shop and owning all the land up to the crest of the hill. He has been making totems not unlike peace pipes with wood glass and feathers. David Wilson is working in a building that used to be the projection booth of the drive-in theater that is the grounds for Spruce Pine Batch. He is doing neon in blown shapes, including a workshop after the GAS and pieces in the outdoor exhibit. While visiting he blew and spun out a perfect 10" flat disk.
Rick and Valerie Beck have several "lines" of glass, blown and cast. They make large solid cane weights that stand on edge, with portions ground to show inside. Multiple layer blown pieces are mask sandblasted to show flowers and butterflies. She also sandblasts images, like large vegetables on white like planting sticks, which are then picked up onto blown pieces. Rick also casts large pieces that, even though done in segments require 2 months annealing. Gary Beecham makes thick glass bowls with colored tubes in the base. As Art Allison says and Gary uses, by the time a piece is knocked off, it better not be hot enough to damage fiberglass fabric covering a knock off table.
Twisted Laurel is an upscale gallery in downtown Spruce Pine ("downtown" literally means that, two streets parallel the railroad tracks and one is 30-40 feet lower than the other.) For the Glass Month and our conference, it was filled with glass, but always carries products of artists in the area. I discovered there that Judy Weilberger is now making handkerchief vases with filigree cane gathered early to produce a delicate wave of color in the final product.
Fiona Clark and Vincent DeLisle are a young couple down from Ohio who have setup to make blown glass vase-like containers (she does) with matched turned wooden lids (he does.) Her style is thick clear base tapered up into a colored tall oval bowl, sometimes with some clear color in the base. The shape in not unlike a Steuben bud vase, but generally larger to much larger. I thought they were good, I hope they can get the price being asked. She is also making mugs where she includes rings sliced from a 2" color cased tube as the handle, which look interesting but don't bring (she says) money to match the effort.
The most striking place to be left alone was in the display room for John Littleton and Kate Vogel. They are doing three major lines that are all stunning (and costly) and Jon had an errand to run and simply said, "Stay here and look at them, I'll be right back." One set of pieces are rectangular clear blocks with faces, masks, and hands cast hollow inside. Another is faces and hands where the hands are squeezing or otherwise massaging or distorting the faces and the hands and faces are usually of opposite sex. Third is their famous glass bags both frosted lumped together and clear with bags inside. Fourth are vases and flowers made with Paragon ceramic paints on surfaces that end up inside the glass.
Judson Guerard is now set up in a large space in a brick two story hardware store kind of place at a sharp bend in the road of Loafer's Glory after running the Penland shop for a while. He is producing very long stemmed, air twist stem goblets with ground rims (which saves punty work) and larger sculptural pieces. Judson pointed out that doing a small gather on the end of the stem makes working the foot easier than trying to put the recently worked stem into the foot cookie. He had ground a pair of jacks with very thin blades which he liked for working goblets. He uses a pneumatic optic mold on the bowls and objected to the noise of the air, until he realized that he could run the exhaust via a hose to well away from the working area.
My last visit, as the clock reached 6 p.m., was to Yoav Greenberg, settling in after moving from Israel via New York, was building equipment at the top of a tall hill (walked to by visitors) at the end of a very twisty road. Yoav had made a glory hole with the folded frax method (folded frax is stiff enough to support the inner lining at some loss of insulation.) On his small glory hole, he just used the method described next, but on the large one he inserted insulating fire brick spacers between the frax to support the liner if the frax should sag. Yoav covered the frax with Saran Wrap then poured 1-1.5" of castable between an inner form and the frax. Besides covering the frax, reducing the fried fibers risk, many users like the increased heat retention of the castable playing against the increased insulation of the frax. A detail he likes that I am not sure works with the angles involved is the entry to his furnace. He made his furnace opening round with one square corner in the lower right. His door has the lower right corner cut away, so when it is moved left a few inches, he has an access port about 3x3" for small bit gathers. My problem arises from the angles involved, which I could not test, as to whether a punty would hit the edges of the door before being tilted enough to get into the glass.

McIlhenny's Giberson gaffer benchGAFFERS BENCH - My Thursday studio visits included the SIU portable studio (see below) and a long drive to Chaffe McIlhenny's for a very pleasant visit and a view of an unusual tool being used. For someone from Texas, where driving is often a lesson in long gray lines, slinging a car in the North Carolina mountains (sharp 15 mph U turn every 5 car lengths) is an adventure and consumes time. I was really anxious I was going to find no one in place as I spent more and more time getting there. In fact, he was taking a lunch break when I arrived. He normally works alone and when he realized he was going to do that (because of preferring to be assertively rural), he looked for tools that would help. The one he bought over a decade ago is Dudley Gibberson's patented Automatic Gaffer's Bench (AGB) and he made two goblets while I visited. The bench is steel with two ball bearing yokes, one of which has a pull down clamp. A geared down motor under the bench surface engages the gear on the shaft and turns it. The bench requires a gear about 2" across being mounted on each pipe or punty to be used on it. Also included are two carefully aligned ball bearing yokes for the punty. The AGB, since its speed does not vary, does not totally automate the process. When the glass is very soft, McIlhenny hand spins the pipe on the bearings. But it centers the glass while he gathers the stem, foot and punty and keeps the punty perfectly aligned with the piece. He uses hot punties -- that is he replaces the punty at the warmer instead of dropping it in a crack off bucket, trimming the scrap before picking up his next stem. Thus he is not building the hot bit for the stem on a bare punty each time, but adding glass to a full diameter core. He also uses a jack with four blades on each side to flute his stems and has the thickest walled furnace (about 12") I have yet seen. Chaffe and his wife, Bonnie Hamilton, work glass together. Before the kids started coming, she blew glass, but found herself interrupted afterward. Now she designs form and color of layered shaded pieces, which he blows and into which she sandblasts designs. Sandblasting can be stopped at any time for a crying kid. Besides the large production goblets, he also makes medium large bowls including one with a second rim from an added gather that came about because it could be worked alone on the AGB, and hot formed sculptures that feature clear core brightly colored cane arranged in an optic molded shape that then given a single wave-like bend.

HOUSES AND GARDENS - Almost everyone was eager to talk about their gardens and their home and its view or arrangement. And I enjoyed the amount of glass that was used artistically in the gardens. This ranged from blown balls being used almost like rocks to tall shapes that might replace small bushes to colored glass that competed with blooming flowers. The finest example of the last was the Todd's hot worked daffodil type flower sitting politely in a row with three other natural blooms. Another glass worker skilled at flower spotting reported his reaction at first was bewilderment at this odd species of flower.

SIU PORTABLE - Southern Illinois University brought their trailer mounted glass blowing setup to the Conference, blowing glass for the public at the Folk Art Center on the Blue Ridge Parkway and using visiting glassblowers for demos to empty the pots. The rig is now about 25 years old (conceived in 1969) and is neatly packaged on a custom built tandem drop axle horse trailer chassis. It is heavy and today would almost certainly be built with a goose neck hitch. The setup is not self contained, requiring a locally supplied propane tank (100 gallons per day is used) and electricity (220 volts 60 amps divided on board to 4 - 110 circuits.) Starting at the left rear corner, it contains a glory hole and furnace each with slide out yoke, three front opening annealers on the right side, storage that goes all across the trailer with lift out floor panels, and a front section for annealer controls, air compressor, small refrigerator. The storage section also includes the breaker boxes and contactors for the annealers on the wall. In this space go the gaffers bench, a barrel shaped color pot furnace and all the tools and containers needed. The fender on one side is welded to the storage door so much easier access is provided when the door is open. The trailer is used a few times a year, so parts, the controllers, for example, are mounted for quick removal when the trailer is in storage.

TECHNICAL EXHIBITS were larger than the '93 Conf. I attended and offered a great opportunity to compare tools as all the makers were there. I took the opportunity to compare jacks for pressure and shape, with the following notes. Shape Edge Pull Cost Anchor Tear Sharp Med. 59.95 Heavy available A.R.T.Co. Oval Sharp Med. 102.50 Steinert Tear Sharp Heavy 150.00 9", "Jordan Jacks" Moore Tear Sharp Med. 160.00 9" Paoli Flat Blunt Med-Hvy. 55.00 Putsch Flat Blunt Heavy 45.00 Murano Style Tear Sharp Light 75.60 These are clearly my judgments. Moore's jacks are generally considered the nearest to the Italian competition. Several of these can provide a different stiffness and other changes. Jim Moore has a new spiffier catalog. Putsch was there with their lower priced stuff and the new Glass Batch company mentioned earlier in HB was there.

NEW - MOLDS - A company new in the USA market is Jacobsson-Sweden [Jacobssons Formverkstad AV, Jarnvagsgatan 14, S-360 51 Hovmamtorp, Sweden, FAX preferred communication (Countrycode 46) 478-403-70, Voice 46-478-402-58] which is selling mold making services as well as wood and graphite tools. Using FAX for communication because of time zone difference and design needs and in business since 1969, Thomas Jacobsson can make wood, graphite, ceramic and steel molds to meet the needs of various quantities of glass making. He made the ceramic molds for the Nobel Prize Dinner tableware. Just entering the USA market, he is also selling wood blocks of alder (which is lighter than cherry) in various sizes (at what I fear are too high prices.) Blocks may be bought unhandled with a flat on the side for attaching a bracket (also sold) or with handles carved in the same block (unlike most blocks I have seen with a dowel handle fitted in a hole in the block.) Prices depend on the rate of exchange, but examples listed are #1 70x60mm $48.50/$68 (no handle/handled), #5 160x135mm $76.50/$96, and #8 230x200mm $97.50/$117. Custom design blocks are $10 over similar size. Other products include graphite Pacioffis sticks (e.g. 10mm x 300mm long $38/each), wooden paddles (e.g. 125mm x 600mm $11.80) and an adjustable optic (brass blades held between steel end plates) at the gasp producing price of $850 for a 16 blade unit with about a 2.25" hole. [As a reminder, 25.4mm=1" and 100mm is about 4".] Nice color brochure explaining materials and showing products, no USA rep yet. -

POWDER CUPS - Mark Anderson (Anderson's Ceramics, 619-940-9114) in a flier given out at the Wilton Ceramics table, is advertising ceramic powder pickup cups for frit and powder. A drawing suggests a squash shell mounted on cross brace legs (or a large avocado shell or a pear.) Sized for up to 4", 5", or 6" gathers at $15, $18, and $22. (Divas is considering getting some cast in aluminum, they told me.)

CONFERENCE MEETINGS were widely varied and (as always happens at these things) sometimes conflicting in interest in the same time slot. Summarizing everything I saw would take too much time and space and discourage you from going next time (in Boston in June of 96, by the way) or from joining and getting the Journal.
The most jammed Discussion group was "Building a Studio on a Shoe String Budget" which so rapidly filled the assigned room that I pulled out and went to "Low Cost Solutions to Health, Safety, and Pollution Control Issues" which was a most lively discussion, highlighted in the middle by the arrival of Lino Tagliapietra who stopped the discussion just by walking in and certainly enhanced it after that with some very strong opinions about the need for safety especially eyes and skin. The strongest concern was about effects of fiber dust and glass chemical dust, particularly lead. Suggestions included respirators when working with batch and grinding, good directed ventilation, cleaning of dust using damp cloths and sweeping compound and designing the studio so it can be washed down at least monthly. Lino was particularly concerned about shielding, not just for eyes, but for heat effects on the body. Ironically, working in the new studio at Penland all forms of protection were lacking.
A remarkable session for me was "The Glassmakers" by Samuel Kurinsky (who has written a book of the same title.) Starting with the generally accepted belief that glass making uniquely of all materials started in exactly one place (the lower end of what was later became the Fertile Crescent.), Kurinsky has spent years documenting where glass was made and when. He feels he is able to demonstrate its movement with time through the Crescent to a time where for about 8 centuries it was preserved in Canaan and Judea as it died out in the Crescent. Later it moved back into the upper crescent when Canaan was overrun and workers were forcibly moved there. Kurinsky's strongest contentions are that there is no such thing as Egyptian, Syrian, or Roman glass. Except for a very limited period in Egypt, he contends that all the glass found there can traced as tribute from Canaan. Roman citizens were absolutely prohibited by law from the kind of employment involved in making glass and language references tie imported workers to glass. And Syria/Palestine as a reference did not exist until after the rebellion in Judea about 140 CE/AD. Therefore, Kurinsky contends that until the forced conversion of Jews to Christianity before the Renaissance, all of the glass making (and he is careful to point out the difference between glass making from raw materials and glass forming - remelting - existing glass) was carried on by Jewish craftsmen and museums which label glass in traditional ways bury this contribution. He has been able to convince several museums to at least change "Roman Glass" to "Glass of the Roman Period." He is working to stop using Syrian as a description for glass produced in Judea/Canaan when all the other products of the area are labeled with the territory names in effect when they were produced.

OUTDOOR GLASS - Friday night (5/12) was opening of several exhibitions as well as the outdoor exhibit of glass. Buses were provided for visiting the more remote locations. The outdoor exhibit was setup on the edge of Pack Square, the heart of the downtown area. Pieces shown included a wall with glass inserts lighted from behind, a layout of various cast and blown glass pieces with neon and other lighting; a tree with straight neon tubes placed in it; another tree with light bulbs bouncing on elastic tubes; cast hands with small lights at the base holding water filled cups with floating candles; and several odd shapes bulbous and pointy with neon and other gases inside.

AND GALLERIES - Downtown Asheville has a number of galleries that were participating in the North Carolina Glass Month and Conference. Blue Spiral I was the gallery with the most glass and it was remarkable to see four or five examples of an artists only seen in singles before. A neat experience was discussing Richard Ritter's pieces with him. I had assumed they were cast, especially since the top is often a limpid looking pool over the murrini floating inside the glass. One of the pieces had a dip in the top and I was asking how it was done. He told me that rather than being cast, the pieces were blown and gathered, the murrini being picked up like frit. The top surface is actually the inside of the bubble, the top being worked by hand on the punty, about 10-15 pounds of glass. Unlike cast, the exact layout of the inside pieces isn't seen until it opened. A Toto-not-in-Kansas moment occurred in the back corner when a Chihuly piece (large lip wrapped bowl with smaller bowls inside) had "Serious inquiries are invited" instead of a price -- when the piece next to it cost $16,000! Stephen POWELL was a constant presence because of the Blue Spiral 1 sponsored exhibit in a space of the art center which featured eleven of his huge colorful bottle shapes brightly lighted in the windows at a main corner of downtown. It was fun to talk to him about the pieces and see them really up close. He brought them over the mountains in the back of a jeep, packed with pieces of foam, about $100,000 worth. My instant image was a newspaper headline, "Jeep accident in mountains, broken colored glass found on highway."

PENLAND was the feature of Saturday and we overwhelmed the place and its new glass studio. Penland is one of several schools that came out of the Arts and Crafts movement, Danish folk schools, and a desire to preserve mountain crafts and provide cash employment. Others include the John C. Campbell Folk School and Berea (which I have also visited.)
Generally these schools provide a rustic setting, home-like housing and small classes scattered in small buildings around the site. None of which has anything to do with several hundred visitors arriving in ten buses (which were admirably packed/parked on arrival so they were ready to depart later.) Penland is arranged in a U shape on the wooded slopes around a pastoral valley floor.
The new Bill Brown glass studio tops the crest at the base of the U, just above the old studio and both were in operation for the visit, the new one just barely. The old studio has a realistic "audience" space of about 8, into which 20-30 people arranged themselves. The new studio is much bigger, but the 100-200 people who tried to watch did a good job of blocking each other. In the new studio, the hot area is on one side of a huge steel I-beam with ventilation fans behind it. There are two recuperative furnaces and three glory holes of various sizes. The work area includes overhead plug-in for gas and retractable compressed air hoses for three work bench locations. Missing when we visited were any shields. The lampworking area is a good sized room with about 10 piped benches. Other spaces in the building include coldworking and a machine shop type area.
The demos done in the new shop included Lino Tagliapietra and a huge crowd from immediately after the dedication of the building to the man who headed Penland during the time glass became a part of its operation. Richard Jolley did a large clear head of a baseball player and Gene Koss ended the day with three fiery/smoky demos of his casting methods, which involved eight or more people and up to 4 torches working over the glass and a lot of hardware. Six other demos were done in the old hot shop and in the new and old lamp working studios. Penland, in addition to offering classes with scholarships, provides a number of opportunities for artists, including teaching and assistantships, and remarkable residencies. These latter provide an empty studio space and living quarters at very low rental ($30 a month each for a past residency is one example) for two to three years. Many artists spoke at sessions and during visits about the turn around time this gives. The artist must equip the studio space and most take their equipment with them when they leave, often building in the western North Carolina area. Several of resident studios in the "Barns" area were open during our visit and I went by. Joe Nielander was in the process of setting up his space at the start of his residency, having had a show, "Meandering Motion", at Marx Gallery in Chicago last month. He has been making kite shapes of sagged glass over 3/8" stainless rod. Variations include the rod also used as streamers, as string (running in and out of the wall), and as springy mount. Some of the kites have thin wavy glass tails held by two bolts. Some of the "kites" have shapes more like sea creatures. His studio space is several rooms about 8x10 and I understand the building was the original glass residence space, much rebuilt. Other open studios were housed in a long barn and tend to be one long room with posts. Living quarters are in another building. On my way to the conference, I stopped by John C. Campbell Folk School, which I have known about since college and which offers similar classes, but no glass. Both setups are very open and friendly and expect people to wander around and share parts of the experience.

JOB I - (Handed out at GAS 95) "Experienced glassblowers needed at the Jamestown Glasshouse. 17th century style glasshouse ... managed by Eastern National Park & Monument Asso., a nonprofit organization whose mission is to aid and promote ... the activities of the National Park Service. This position involves manufacturing off hand objects using tools and techniques similar to those used in the 17th century, working as individual and team member, to demonstrate glassblowing in costumes of the period and to maintain the operation. Full-time with benefits, salary based on experience and skill. Apply by mail or fax, letter and resume to Eastern National, Attn: Tracy Bolt, U.S.Post Office, Jamestown VA 23081, FAX 804-253-2622, 804-253-2432.

JOB II - Fire & Light Originals [Margaret Gainer, 707-825-7500, 1499-B 10th St., P.O.Box 4791, Arcata CA 95521] is looking for an "energetic, self-motivated, hands-on" glass technician/artisan experienced in pressed glass production. F&L has rented a shop and begun to purchase equipment. Using glass cullet from the community recycling center as primary feedstock, this person will set up and supervise a pressed mold process to produce glass tiles and other products. Experience required with pressed glass and building furnaces and ovens. Arcata CA is a university community on the coast near Oregon. Interviews May-June 95. 5/22/95

IGB #37 - The Independent Glassblower [%Gruenig Glassworks, HC 30 Box 25, Barnet VT 05821, 802-633-4022] newsletter #37 has arrived. Most of the issue is a report with photos from Rollin Karg, Wichita KS, on the continuous melt furnace they put online in Dec.93, which includes suggestions for changes. They took 200-300 pounds per day out of the tank for 8 months before the dividing wall cracked and they used it as a day tank. Quality was reported as not as good as the best from the top of the 300 pot furnace, about the same as the middle. Design changes include a shorter dividing wall and holes on the bottom of the wall. Other points in the issue include a page on a vermiculite/perlite failure as insulation, a letter from James Schell (also sent to me) that tests have been made on eye protection and flame sources, other letters on alternate fuel sources and electric melt. An announcement of a gallery with a public access glass studio in West Stockbridge MA takes a page with an ad for the ceramic frit bowls mentioned in the GAS Conf.notes above and two pages of ads follow. 5/26/95

Continuous Tank - Def. - A furnace where the glass gathering area is separated from the glass melting area by a wall with holes at the bottom. Batch is added to the hotter melting area as needed, melts and drains through the holes as glass is taken from the gathering area. Good points - should be able to take a lot more glass per day from a given size equipment and handle long busy days more easily. Bad points - Handling batch, with respiratory risks, virtually all day in midst of glass blowing, every 15 minutes in article in IGB.

Vermiculite - Def. - A fluffy dark gray product made by heating a variety of micacaous minerals and sold cheaply at garden supply places as an aerator for potting soils; also used as insulation and as a passive annealer for lampworking.

Perlite - Def. - A fluffy white volcanic glass product which is expanded by heat and sold cheaply at garden supply places as an aerator for potting soils and also used as a lightweight aggregate for concrete and plaster.

DAMPERS - One of the safety factors with economic advantages discussed was a flue with a damper on the furnace. By opening the damper during charging, any dust is drawn away from the loader. But the damper also allows considerable savings by allowing a higher flow during melting and lower during working the glass. People said fuel savings with a properly adjusted damper was $100 or more a month.

AMERICAN CRAFTS June/July 95 arrives with many ads referring to Glass Weekend 95. Dorothy Hafner shown in Heller Gallery ad inside cover has nice organic shape notable for bright color almost certainly picked up late in process as fairly large thin fragments. Robert Levin, the first studio I visited in NC, is shown in ads and a "Fellows' Choice" feature. 5/26/95

VENTILATION - A studio's ventilation system should, if possible, not include free standing fans to shift glass dust around the shop. The exhaust point of the system should be near or above the hottest part of the shop to move both heat and furnace fumes out of the shop. A planned entry point for air should be used and when possible two or more should be provided: one which provide for the best air flow across the work area and another which supplies air during winter to ventilate without chilling the workers. Only one input should normally be used at a time so that air flow velocity is as high as possible for best cooling and removal of dust and fumes. The input should be chosen so that it does not normally pull in dust from passing cars or exhaust from parking cars. If several openings are provided, normally air will flow over the shortest possible route from input to exhaust, including along walls, bypassing the people in the center. A fan blowing into a building normally provides poor ventilation except for the direct air flow within a few feet of the fan; there are many dead pockets where fumes and dust may collect. Heat shields in front of furnaces may also help control the air flow - with enough surface before the furnace area, it may be possible to have two exhaust fans, one primarily for heat and fume control and one for work area air flow. When possible, work with the prevailing wind, setting exhaust fans into the downwind side of the building and intakes on the upwind side. Drawing air from the shadier side or from under a building may result in cooler air for much of the day. 5/30/95

HANDS-ON GLASS - formerly Studio Access to Glass [261 Baker Street, Corning NY 14830 607-962-3044] announces summer week-long classes, July 10 - Aug.14, including Intermediate and Advanced Venetian Style glassblowing with Deborah     Czeresko and William Gudenrath respectively (at $380 and $450.) Contact for others and details. 6/1/95

E-MAIL - I have been asked a couple of times whether I can deliver Hot Glass Bits by e-mail. Since I have access to the people who have access to the Internet, I will give it a try. If you would like to get HB via wire, let me know. Document format will be text until someone asks for another and I figure out how to do it. I suppose I could send it FAX also, if someone wanted.

PHOTOS - I am carrying around a pair of portfolios that show examples of glass of particular artists and photos their equipment. I normally take these pictures when I visit. If you wish to share views of your place, I would prefer the following: two pictures from the same position - one across the shop at the hot wall, the second to the right or left showing most of the rest of the shop, often including annealers. A third picture of cold working equipment would be nice. For pictures of work, I favor one picture filled with your best/favorite piece and another showing several pieces that represent the variety of your work. The pictures I carry are 4x6 or 3 1/2x5. If you send slides, I will have prints made.

REFERENCE LISTS - I would like to know of people involved in glassblowing, glassblowers, even those who only blow part of the year; glassblowing studios; and galleries showing and/or selling blown glass. At a minimum, I will send them a copy of Hot Glass Bits. Beyond that, maybe some coordination, reducing costs, sharing experience. Address or phone number needed. Also, schools and people doing teaching in studios so when people ask I can send them some place.

Blow good Glass

Three groups of people get Hot Glass Bits at this point: Those who are mentioned in an issue, those I feel like sending a copy to, and those who have paid some money. The only ones guaranteed to get the next issue are the last group.

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