Tech Specs

Technical Specifications for Glass, etc., with varying reliability

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GLASS TEMP & COE DATA
COEFFICIENT OF EXPANSION
SELECTED TEMPERATURES
MELTING POINTS (mostly metal)
GLASS FORMULAS
INSULATION
GLASS PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS (DENSITY, ETC.)
DENSITY LIST
MELTING GLASS
MATH FORMULAS (AREA. ETC.)
THICK & THICKER THICKNESSES
SHEET METAL GAUGE THICKNESS
WIRE GAUGE THICKNESS
PROPANE & GAS SPECS
 
Off Page Links

VISCOSITY

Pipe Sizes

Statistical Calculation and Development of Glass Properties

Rev. 2003-01-02,-26, -04-15, -20, -05-20 COE, -07-06 Links, -07-31 Thickness
2004-03-19 Revise Temps, -04-26 Density, 1000 poises -05-22 Melting Glass, -06-28 bits
-07-09 Weight of Pieces; 2005-01-07 Density correction, 2006-08-27 Top, 2006-11-29 COE Link
2007-01-25 Specific Gravity links, -04-30 Stat.Calc link, -11-14 Float Glass links, 
2008-02-02 notes, -03-25 Deg.Sym, 08-12 fixes, -09-19 Density, -11-30 Edits
2009-01-04 Flame Temps, -04-05 Graph 2011-08-04 error fix; -11-05 COE edit details, lost links


SELECTED TEMPERATURES & MELTING POINTS

On line temps
 Melting temperatures and ranges
 http://www.lib.umich.edu/dentlib/Dental_tables/Melttemps.html
[caps required]

Action Graph
32 0 Water Freezes/Melts Termperature graph to match list
212 100 Water Boils/Steam Condenses
400 204 Bake muffins, cook pancakes, fry potatoes
450 232 Tin (Sn) Melts
585 307 Pewter Melts (Swest)(Old pewter 80 Pb, 20 Sn)
621 327 Lead (Pb) Melts
786 419 Zinc (Zn) Melts

900

482

Art Glass Anneal Point, Faint Red Heat*
1063 573 Quartz Inversion Temperature - abrupt expansion of glass & clay
1086 586 Cone 022*
1100 593 Plate Glass Sags
1218 659 Aluminum Melts

1250

677

Bullseye fusing glass softens/slumps, Med. Cherry Red Heat

1375

750

Work mild steel from forge, Cherry Red Heat*

1500 816 Pyrex Softens/Slumps
1540 838 Cone 014*
1550 850 Bright Red Heat
1675 913 Bronze (90 Cu 10 Tin) Melts (mid-range)
1706 960 Brass (85 Cu 15 Zinc) Melts (mid-range)
1762 961 Fine Silver Melts
1825 990 Lemon Yellow Heat*
1945 1060 Bronze (96 Cu, 4 Sn) melts
1946 1063 Gold Melts
1981 1083 Copper Melts, Light Yellow Heat*
1994 1090 Cone 03*
2030 1110 Nickel Silver (65 Cu, 17 Zn, 18 Ni) melts
2050-2100 1121-1149 Furnace Art Glass working temp
2200 1200 White Heat*, Cone 5*

2232

1222

Cone 6*

2286

1252

Pyrex "working temp" 1000 poises (to 2600F)
2300 1260 Cast Iron (C+Si+Mn+Fe) Melts
2381 1305 Cone 10*
2400 1315 Spruce Pine Batch Cooking Temp
2480 1360 Monel (33 Cu, 60 Ni, 7 Fe) melts
2500 1353 Steel-High Carbon Melts
2540 1393 Inconel Ni+Cr+Fe
2550 1363 Stainless Steel Melts
2588 1420 Silicon Melts
2600 1427 Medium Carbon Steel Melts
2651 1455 Nickel (Ni) Melts
2700 1464 Low Carbon Steel Melts
2786 1530 Iron Melts
3034 1615 Chromium Cr
3110 1710 Quartz Melts (for cristobalite)(details)
3222 1769 Platinum Melts
3263 1795 Titanium Ti
3434 1890 Chromium Melts (jewelry book)
3632 2000 Quartz Melted Approx. (glass or fused quartz)

3722

2050

Alumina Al2O3(MF)

4046 2230 Quartz boiling point (details)
4800 2620 Molybdenum Melts (used in quartz melting crucibles)
5432 3000 Tungsten Melts
6512 3600 Carbon Melts (in non-oxidizing atmosphere)
* Heat color temps are approx. & depend on lighting, and F<>C is not exact. Metal Temperature by Color
or this chart of color examples in iron http://www.blksmth.com/heat_colors.htm
* Cone temps are used in pottery work and actually include the history of the heating
as measured by a specific Orton Cone - a long slow heat will sag a cone at lower
temp than a fast rising heat.  Ceramic kilns are typically shut off as soon as the cone
sags, while glass is often held (soaked) at peak temp.

Graph Source
[Local for Ref]

Flame Temps*
Tad (°F) Tad (°C) Fuel Oxidizer
3,542 1,950 Methane (CH4) air
3,542 1,950 Natural gas air
3,578 1,970 Butane (C4H10) air
3,596 1,980 Propane (C3H8) air
3,650 2,010 MAPP gas Methylacetylene (C3H4) air
4,010 2,210 Hydrogen (H2) air
4,532 2,500 Acetylene (C2H2) air
4,579 2,526 Propane (C3H8) Oxygen
4,925 2,718 Butane (C4H10) Oxygen
5,301 2,927 MAPP gas Methylacetylene (C3H4) Oxygen
5,612 3,100 Acetylene (C2H2) Oxygen
5,792[1] 3,200 Hydrogen (H2) Oxygen
  Sorted from table http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adiabatic_flame_temperature#Common_flame_temperatures  

Pouring temperature of casting alloys

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Here is a good chart with melting points of non-ferrous, mostly jewelry making, metals http://www.kitco.com/chart.wtmelt.html

Note that melting points for iron based compounds will vary by formula, but usually not more than 50F higher or lower.


GLASS TEMP & COE DATA  (More COE info)

Temps at which glass does various things (notes below)(F vs °F)
Glass Type Strain Temp

Annealing Temp

Sag Temp

Slump Range

Fuse Range

Flow Temp

Industry 1000 Poises

COE
Viscosity log n (dPas)

14.5

13

7.6

6.0

5.0

4.0  

3.0

 
  line above and below from the Schott data sheet on artista glass-
General viscosity info Viscosity http://xtronics.com/reference/viscosity.htm
     
artista temps

480-510°C

515-535°C

705-735°C

805-835°C

900-920°C

1015-1035°C

   
Spruce Pine Batch

600°F

890°F

        [Old>,  New> ver] 87, 92
Bottle Glass   (8)             ~86
Window Glass, Float    

 

1300F->

<-1525F

  1650F(4) [Most > in mid-range] 83-90(8)
1/4" plate glass

900°F (2)

1022°F (2)

1100°F (2)

  1300->

<-1410F(5)

    see above
Soda Lime 311C [592F]
883F(4)
328C [622F]
957F(4)
384C [723F]
 
Certified test
1285F(4)
material here
 
1841F(4)    
KG-33  513C 565C 827C       1255C  
Pyrex 7740 (C source) 950-977F (510C) Anneal: 1040F (560C) Soften: 1510F (821C) Slump: 1500F Fuse: 2000F

 

"Working": 2286F

32
Pyrex 7740, Corning 7740 950-1100F 1030-1200F

1508F

 4-5000 poises at melt > Melting point 2150F for mirror blanks "Working":
2300-2600F
   
Pyrex 950F (1) 1050F (1)      

2290F (1)

 

30

Fused Quartz Strain Point 1120°C Annealing Point  1215°C Softening Point 1683°C (9) [COE Units:x10 -7 cm/cm . °C]      5.5
Glass Type Strain Temp

Annealing Temp

Sag Temp

Slump Range

Fuse Range

Flow Temp

Industry 1000 Poises

COE
Johns-Manville 475 fiberglass marbles                
Moretti (soft)   850F (1)

930F (1)

     

"Working"
1450F (1)

  104
Bullseye   865F (3)

 960F (3)

Soften:1250F(3)       1500F (1)   90
Gaffer Casting Crystal (7) 400C (752F) 440C (824F)       "Casting" 780-850C. (1426-1562F   92
Spectrum  750F (3) 950F (3)         [Old>,  New> ver] 106, 96
fhc (Fenton Cullet) 440C (2) 490C (2) Preheat 550C     Melt 2300F    
Glass Type Brand or general description of glass
Strain Temp Temp at which further slow annealing relieves no strain, bottom of annealing range, determined by viscosity being 10^14.5 poises (more detail)
Annealing Temp Upper end of annealing range, temp at which soak to relieve strain occurs, no slumping should occur. Usually taken as 50°F below the Sag point (next) (more detail)
Sag Temp The point at which a test piece, supported at the ends, will just begin to slump after being held at the temperature for 5 minutes during a slow rise in temp. (more detail)
Slump Range Warm glass (kiln work) slumping range, where glass moves but does not flow or seal to itself.
Fuse Range Warm glass (kiln work) temps where glass begins to flow and layers melt into each other.
Round Corner Edges of glass pieces lose definition, rounding over.  Square profiles become rounded. (Not in this table.)
Fuse Merge An upper piece of glass merges with lower, upper edges melt in, but remains humped. (Not in this table.)
Fuse Flat Glass pieces melt together, forming an essentially flat piece of glass (very slight rise of seam may be felt.)
Flow Temp Temp at which glass flows freely and fills molds.
COE Coefficient of Expansion (x 10^-7) ten-millionths of an inch per inch (or cm per cm) per degree Celsius -See below
(1) Brian Kerkvliet in Glass Art Mar/Apr 95, reprinted in The Firing Line Summer 1996
(2) E-mail message below
(3) Company Website Bullseye, Spectrum,
(4) Glass, An Artist's Medium,  Lucartha Kohler
(5) M.Firth during work.
(6) www.kimble-kontes.com/pdfs/physical_properties_glass.pdf
(7) http://gafferglass.com/technical/casting_main.htm
(8) http://www.warmglass.com/Glass_types.htm  Window glass COE varies from 77-90 by various sources with a proclaimed median being 86 (85-87).  One company selling compatible colored flat glass says their COE is 85±3 which pushes the limits of compatibility a lot.
(9) Quartz Properties
(10) In this table F and F are used to mean Fahrenheit although the second is more correct. is awkward to enter, too often ending up as a box even in MS Explorer. Similarly C & C are used for Celsius Conversion

 

I've been working w/ window pane glass. Funky stuff is right.
Non-glare, conservation, conservation non-glass, one or both sides...
Slumping/sagging around 1300 degrees F. Full fuse 1525 degrees F.

Mike __ I have used these guidelines with good success. From Gil Reynolds,
quoting Tooley's 'Handbook of Glass Manufacture :
For 1/4" plate glass
1100 F ______ Upper limit of annealing region
1022 F ______ Annealing Point
900 F ______ Strain Point (Lower limit of annealing region)

>Pyrex 7740
>Strain: 950-977F
>Anneal: 1040F
>Soften: 1510F
>Slump: 1500F
>Fuse: 2000F
>Pate de verre: 2070?
>"Working": 2286F
Your figures look perfect.
The only thing that I should add is that they seem to be the lower limit, while the upper limit may be 100F higher.

Here is what I have managed to extract from my data bank:
Pyrex 7740, Corning 7740
Strain: 950-1100F
Anneal: 1030-1200F
Soften: 1508F
"Working":2300-2600F
To your reference, the above figures were extracted from SciGlass 3.5, a glass data bank by scivision, http://www.scivivison.com

6/30/2000
Mike,
I noticed your query about "a handy rough list of temps that apply to various kinds of glass" on the Hot Glass board (the one that Henry pulled your chain about). I've done some work toward such a table, but the person who's done a phenomenal amount in this area is an Australian named Graham Stone, who's written a book called "Firing Schedules for Glass: The Kiln Companion."

The book has over 100 pages of firing schedules and over 100 pages of other technical information. Each firing schedule (and they're for fusing, slumping, glassblowing, and lampworking) has data for a number of different types of glass, ranging from float glass to art glasses (Bullseye, Uroboros, GNA, etc.) to borosilicate, lead crystal, and even furnace glass. (Obviously, some of the info is an approximation due to the variability of the glass.) The book also has tables of annealing data for the various manufacturers and lots of other great information. I'm told it took 5 years to write the book (on top of 25 years experience).

I have a page about the book on my web site at: http://www.warmglass.com/Firing_Schedules.htm

Brad Walker mbwalker@warmglass.com

P.S. Full disclosure: I've never met Graham Stone, but he and I agreed by e-mail to exchange copies of our books. I received his book a few days ago and have been extremely impressed, so much so that I put up the info about the book on my site. The amount of work he has done to create the book is simply staggering.

 

For information about warm glass techniques and processes such as fusing, slumping, and kiln forming, please visit
the Warm Glass website at http://www.warmglass.com

: kamui I melt fhc too when I can get it I know the supply is low and unless your on the list Santa wont send you any and if your not already on the list I believe you can't get on the list. Anyway I anneal at 490/C strain point 440/C melt at about 2300/F Have melted in an electric furnace but use propane now. Problem with melting fhc is that teddy bears explode if you don't preheat them in an annealer, I preheat my fhc to 550/C before charging stops heads and arms from dripping from the crown. {I think Fenton calls them birthday bears they come with a bag of birthstones that can be crazy glued on to a pad on the bears chest} Smart marketing Fenton has been making these for at least a couple of decades. I understand Fenton will pull cullet in the form of wafers for about .35/lb.
Best of luck watch out for the fit on the C4 and C6 Frank will try and sell you some people have got them to work I lost two days of production on the C4 But that was my fault for not doing the pull test. P.S Those bears really do make wonderful gifts/to your furnace.

Meant to post something yesterday but.. and now no real need to add anything but a little history. The [Spruce Pine] product names are based on the theoretical COE (English and Turner was what we started with). This system was selected in part because it is possible to change the measured COE by using different melting techniques (as <name removed>. has noted a number of times). Dominic Liabino was commissioned to develop our first production formula. There were a few problems moving from the experimental stage to production. The first usable batch that we shipped was the 92. It was never used by very many people as it was a little high but it did get used by some people who had some of the old high expansion Weisenthal (sp?). It is also so high that it fits some of the morreti colors without strain. Thus came the 87. Measures 96-97 when melted but as Pete can tell you it can go from 99-95 with no errors made during production. (Again as <omitted> suggests it is a Good Idea to at least do a pull test to check the expansion when you do a melt.) At the time we were mostly trying to fit the Kugler 61 white as it was used the most of any color. The result is a glass that generally fits the transparent commercial colors along with some of the Zimmerman opaques. The 83 permits the use of some of the opaques but.. Over time we have found that the colors vary enough from production run to production run that once in a while a color that has fit doesn't maybe due to errors maybe due to a change in production. None of which makes anyones job any easier. As a rule, if there is one, each color seems to vary within a range but in general the opaques have a different and lower range than the transparents. Exceptions run rampant. Tom @ Spruce Pine Batch 2000-12-22 Brad Shutes Discussion Board

Float Glass Plant Building  http://www.stewartengineers.com/techfaq.html
Outline of float glass making with spread and ingredient formulas http://www.tangram.co.uk/TI-Glazing-Float%20Glass.html

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COEFFICIENT OF EXPANSION -

A most important specification for glass is the COE (Coefficient of Expansion) yet it is also the subject of the most argument. The COE is the rate at which the glass expands. It is important because if two glasses of sufficiently different COE, usually two colors or a color and a base clear, are fused together, they will crack on cooling.
 The fact of incompatibility can be tested by melting or fusing the two glasses together or the COE can be measured or calculated from the ratios of ingredients in the batch - but that gives two different answers. An additional problem is that the measured COE is done at a much lower temperature (20-300C in the table below) than the temps at which glass develops strain problems. (say 450-500C) The result is that testing must be done before committing certain glass colors to making a piece.
 [European sources may report numbers ten times smaller, using 10^-6 as instead of 10^-7, so 92 is 9.2]  Note that COE is different for F and C (or K) because the change reported is per degree and C degrees are 1.8 (9/5) bigger. Both are length per length, so the units of length given are irrelevant as long as they are the same (not mm/m or in/ft for example.)  List of COE's for metal & other materials Another list with plastics 2008-02-02, -11-30

(Douglas Wiggins) writes:
>Can someone tell me what the coefficient of expansion of ordinary
>cutlery-type stainless-steel is? Just so that we are talking in the
>same quantitative levels:
>Bullseye stained glass has a COE of 90*
>Window and bottle ("soft")** glass has a COE of approximately 86
>Pyrex (Corning 7740 borosilicate) has a COE of 32.5
>Spectrum stained glass had a COE of 106
>*times 10-7 cm/cm/degree C, starting at 300 degrees Celsius -

The Handbook of Chemistry and Physics has a table for pure metals (not the various stainless alloys) which is based at 25C (77F) and uses a different multiplier.
If I convert the ones above to decimals and put them at the left edge of the screen to allow for different text sizes, etc.


 

0.123456789 decimal places degrees C (F is 5/9's of C value, K is same as C)
0.0000090 Bullseye (move the decimal point seven places to get 90)
0.0000086 "soft" window glass   86 x 10^-7
0.00000325 Pyrex          32.5
0.0000106 Spectrum   106
Then here are the metals.
0.0000350 Zinc         350
0.0000250 Aluminum (move the decimal point 6 places to get 25 in book)
0.0000200 Tin           200
0.0000195 Silver       195
0.0000166 Copper    166
0.0000142 Gold         142
0.0000120 Iron         120 x 10^-7                          (Also, this page)
0.0000125 Nichrome 12.5 um/m or x10-6m/m ref
0.0000062 Chromium  62/34
0.0000051 Silicon        51/28
And some stone. Inches per inch per degree C/F
0.0000079 Granite        7.9/4.4 x 10^-6
0.0000080 Limestone   8.0/4.4 x 10^-6
0.0000120 Marble        5.5/3.1  to  14.0/7.9 x 10^-6
0.0000116 Sandstone   11.6/6.5 x 10^-6
A lengthy list of COEs http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/linear-expansion-coefficients-d_95.html
Note: COE is given in m/m or in/in per degree. The two lengths cancel so the ratio
of the C and F COEs is 9/5.  But knowing which one is used by various
people when talking casually is important.
Warning: COE, particularly with glass, must be taken with a grain of caution - COE tables
usually give the range of temps for expansion (20-100C) or the center
temperature (25C) but glass is worked at 1400F to 2000F+ and the COE of a
color might be quite different when combining/layering  2011-11-05

Or Aluminum has twice the expansion coefficient of Iron
Glass coefficients fall below most of the metals we are likely to encounter, although Chromium is lower.
Interestingly, most of the metals are well above (120 or more using glass x10^-7) or well below (50,70,60) glass.
Metals with a 90 COE include Antimony and Platinum while Titanium is 85. None are listed at 100 or 110.
Alloys of metals, just as different mixtures of glass, can have widely varying COE.
Remember, these are measured at different temps and can vary with temp.

What does this mean practically?
If a 1 meter long strand of iron (120 COE) were bonded at both ends with a strand of Bulleye glass (90 COE) and the temperature raised 100C. (Making lots of assumptions) the iron would try to be 1.00120 meters long and the glass 1.00090 meters long (1001.2 mm vs. 1000.9 mm or 0.3 mm difference or 0.012 inch.)  If the two were attached so the shorter glass formed a straight line and the longer iron went out to a corner at mid-point - forming a long thin triangle - that point would be 12.2 mm or about 1/2 inch from the glass line.

That conversion of 12 thousandths of an inch difference in expansion to about 1/2" separation at mid-point suggests why COE is important.

[For those who care to check the math, the distance is one side of triangle with a hypotenuse of 0.5006m and a base of 0.50045m - half the length of the expanded iron and glass respectively. The sides of a right triangle are A^2=B^2+C^2 where A is the hypotenuse and B & C are the other two sides and ^ is exponentiation as in spreadsheets. To get a side, the formula is rearranged to get the square root so B= (A^2 - C^2) ^ .5 . So Glass side squared is 0.250450203; Iron side squared is 0.25060036; difference is 0.000150158 and sq.root is 0.012253877 all in meters.]

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Glass Formulas

This portion of the info is provided mostly to show the kind of choices a skilled person can make about glass. One of the areas I am weakest is the theory of making (formulating) glass. MF See also Batch.htm

Posted by Ellen Glassware on 12/8/2000, 6:37 am Brad Shute's Discussion Board [he really doesn't want me to have a link to his board because he thinks posting something like this from his board violates his copyright, but since Ellen is posting something from the Society, it isn't his copyright anyway and I'll keep the link just to give you a chance to see whether the board is still any good.]

Low melting glass recipe from Society of Glass Technology .
sand 55.000 kgs
sodium carbonate 22.000
calcium carbonate 7.000
borax [dehybor] 1.500
potassium nitrate 2.500
barium carbonate 5.000
arsenic 0.4 [the key to good melts] arsenic
for Kugler colour glass
We have melted this glass in the same pot for over 12months in mullite type pot 24inches L 30inches W
crucibles 2 inches thick handmade in Newcastle GB
WE started melting this recipe in 1994 we always melted lead
We hope to live longer.
The Chairman of Hand made Glassware Committee
J Costello

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Insulation Numbers

The primary insulators used in art glass work are Insulating Fire Brick (IFB), Insulating Refractory Castable (IRC) and ceramic fiber (frax) although vermiculite, Perlite and fiberglass are used on occasion.

The insulation (or conduction) value changes with temperature, following a curve.

The conductivity is given in  Btu in /hr sq.ft. °F which means that for the Perlite listed below, rated 1.0 at 1000F, for outside air at 70F, for each square foot of insulation, one inch thick, 930 Btu will be lost each hour (1000-70=930)

 

Perlite - 8 pcf Thermal conductivity Btu in /hr sq.ft. °F  1.0 at 1000F, 2.0 at 1700F http://www.silbrico.com/hightmp.htm
Light wt refractory brick 500 kg/m3, Btu in /hr sq.ft. °F ~1.2 at 1000F ~1.4 at 1800 http://www.culimeta.de/Culimeta_English/thermconflexipor.htm
Ceramic Fiber Panel 250 kg/m3, Btu in /hr sq.ft. °F ~0.70 at 1000F  ~1.3 at 1800 http://www.culimeta.de/Culimeta_English/thermconflexipor.htm
Alumina bulk fiber 6 pcf packed, Btu in /hr sq.ft. °F 0.75 at 1000F 1.7 at 2000F http://www.zircarceramics.com/pages/fibers/specs/albf-1.htm
Kaowool B (45 Alumina 50 Silica) 6 pcf,  Btu in /hr sq.ft. °F 1.01 at 1000F 1.73 at 1500F (not above)*
Kaowool S (40 Alumina 50 Silica 0-15 Zirconia) 6 pcf,  Btu in /hr sq.ft. °F 1.05 at 1000F, 2.45 at 1800F (2000F cont.)*
Cerachem  (35 Alumina 50 Silica 15 Zirconia) 6 pcf,  Btu in /hr sq.ft. °F  1.06 at 1000F, 2.83 at 2000F (2400F cont) *http://www.inproheat.com/Pdf/thermal ceramics/Ceramic Fibre Blanket/Blanket Products.pdf

A source of calculating software for refractory is J. D. Barnes Engineering - Refractory Page

Btu in /hr sq.ft. °F = 0.1442279 watt per metre kelvin

http://www.thermafiber.com/pdfs/TF554c.pdf

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PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS (DENSITY, ETC.)

Glass weighs about 0.087 pounds/cubic inch or about 150 pounds per cubic foot, a density of 2.4 with respect to water, thus 2.4 gram/cubic centimeter, 2.4 kilograms/liter. The density will vary with the constituents, lead glass in particular being heavier.  A site on the internet lists borosilicate glass as 2.3, glass as 2.6 and lead glass as 2.8.  (Other materials)

"Glass never wears out -- it can be recycled forever. We save over a ton of resources for every ton of glass recycled -- 1,330 pounds of sand, 433 pounds of soda ash, 433 pounds of limestone, and 151 pounds of feldspar." Glass recycling site

Water weighs 62.4 pounds per cubic foot, or 1 gram per cubic centimeter, at 4°C, its greatest density. This is the standard for specific gravity, a ratio.

What will pieces of blown glass weigh or how much glass will it take to make a piece?  In this table, the volume of common shapes - a hollow hemisphere and a hollow cylinder - is used to estimate the weight of a bowl shape or a vase shape.  Two specific objects were measured along the way as listed in the table.

Glass Weight

Glass Volume

= Area times wall thickness

shape

Wt (lbs)

Vol (cu.in.)

Dia (in.)

Thick (in)

Ht (in)

Hemi Area

Hemisphere

0.273

3.142

4

0.125

25.133

(Bowl)

0.547

6.283

4

0.25

25.133

1.230

14.137

6

0.25

56.549

1.845

21.206

6

0.375

56.549

2.187

25.133

8

0.25

100.531

13.666

157.080

20

0.25

628.319

A 6" Pyrex bowl with about 3/16" (0.1875) walls weighs a pound, measured.

Wt (lbs) Vol (cu.in) Dia (in.) Thick (in.) Ht (in)

Bot.Area

Wall Area

Cylinder

1.230

14.137

4

0.125

8

12.566

100.531

(Vase,

2.460

28.274

4

0.25

8

12.566

100.531

Tumbler)

3.553

40.841

4

0.25

12

12.566

150.796

1.947

22.384

6

0.125

8

28.274

150.796

7.175

82.467

6

0.25

16

28.274

301.593

A 13" tall vase 3" OD with 1/4"+ walls & thick cookie foot weighs 3.25 pounds.

Sheet, Sq.

1.566

18

12

0.125

12

144

3.132

36

12

0.25

12

144

Disk

1.384

15.904

9

0.25

63.617

4.373

50.265

16

0.25

201.062

2004-07-09

9.839

113.097

24

0.25

452.389

0.087 pounds/cubic inch or about 150 pounds per cubic foot

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Density List

This table of densities started off online in alphabetical order (no longer available.)  It was then massaged, to put it in density order and then the column of relative to glass was added.  (Note the column of density is based on water = 1000 Kg/m3 at its densest - just above freezing.)   Since I work in glass, I thought setting it as the basis of relative density would be fun. Glass data) 2004-02-14  Entries with [MF] in notes were found later out on the web.  Here is a table arranged by material class and by density. 2004-04-26  Here are tables of many more specific gravity figures, provided as an estimate for shipping, including dry, liquid, metals & woods. 2007-01-25 2008-09-19 edit

Material

(notes)

Density gm/l or kg/m^3

Relative to glass

Hydrogen 0°C

1 atm

0.09

0.000036

Helium 0°C

1 atm

0.178

0.0000712

Air 20°C

1 atm, dry

1.21

0.000484

Oxygen 0°C

1 atm

1.43

0.000572

Styrofoam

100

0.04

Balsa wood

120

0.048

Cork

250

0.10

Packed Snow,
High Density
 Polyurethane Foam
[MF] 500 0.20
Pine [MF] 610 0.244
Oak [MF] 815 0.326

Ice

917

0.3668

Oil (olive)

920

0.368

Water (not 4°C high)

1 atm, 20C

998

0.3992

Seawater 20°C

1 atm

1024

0.4096

Brick

2000

0.8

Concrete [MF] 2300 0.92

Glass Window/Art

2500

1

Aluminum

2700

1.08

Earth (Planet)

Crust

2800

1.12

Glass Lead Crystal   3100 1.24

Diamond

3300

1.32

Earth (Planet)

Average

5500

2.2

Iron

7900

3.16

Nickel

8800

3.52

Copper

8900

3.56

Earth (Planet)

Core

9500

3.8

Silver

10500

4.2

Lead

11300

4.52

Mercury

13600

5.44

Uranium

18700

7.48

Gold

19300

7.72

Tungsten

19300

7.72

Platinum

21500

8.6

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Melting Glass Cost

In the mid 1980's, the glass industry began to adopt oxy-fuel melting technology encouraged by more stringent air pollution regulations and the ready availability of natural gas. Oxy-fuel melting is the use of injected oxygen as a substitute for combustion air; it can be partial oxygen assist but usually 100% of the oxygen required is supplied. Since 1990, the U.S. glass industry has increased the proportion of oxy-fuel furnaces from less than 1% to approximately 25%. During the same period all-electric furnaces dropped from12% to 9% [ www.energy.ca.gov/process/pubs/all_electric_vs_oxy.pdf ]

Reported power consumption for all-electric glass-melting furnaces range from 790 kWh per ton up to 1,050 kWh per ton depending on the efficiency of the furnace. Therefore, energy costs can range from about $40 per ton to $53 per ton of glass melted at an average cost of electricity of $0.05 per kWh. [1 kWh = 3,412 Btu,   293.1 kWh = 1 million Btu -MF]

In comparison, fuel-fired regenerative furnaces used for glass-melting consume an estimated 4.5 to 7.5 million Btu's per ton of glass melted. Energy costs for fuel-fired furnaces therefore cost about $13.50 per ton to $22.50 per ton (assuming $3.00 per million Btu for natural gas).  [ http://tristate.apogee.net/et/efisgec.asp]

Minimizing the amount of excess air used for combustion, while holding the gas input constant, increases the amount of available heat for melting. For the production melter, proper burner positioning allows a reduction in the excess air from 18% (3.5% oxygen in the flue) to 8% (1.5% oxygen in the flue). The amount of natural gas that is required to maintain proper temperature decreases substantially with even a small decrease in the amounts of excess air used.
It is estimated that an increase in the percentage of outside cullet from the average (20%) to 50% would reduce glass melting furnace energy requirements about 6.8%. The potential savings are 0.51 million BTU/ton of glass, or about 3% of the total energy currently used.  [ http://www.glasscons.com/melting.html ]

One old time factory ad cited calls for people to cut 700 cords of wood. [each being 128 cu.ft., one web site giving 15.6 million Btu per cord for Eastern White Pine and 29.1 MBtu/cord for White Oak]

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MATH FORMULAS (AREA. ETC.)

The volume of a sphere is 4/3 Pi R3 where R is the radius (half the diameter) and Pi is 3.14159
The area of a sphere is 4 Pi R2. For small thicknesses, the volume of a hollow shell is just the area times the thickness.  For thicker shells, the inside volume must be subtracted from the outside volume.

Volume & Pounds of water in a sphere
Volume
 ft3
Pounds H2O Inches
Dia.

0.5236

33.51

12

1.0227

65.45

15

1.7671

113.10

18

2.8062

179.59

21

4.1888

268.08

24

8.1812

523.60

30

The area of a circle is Pi R2 and the volume of a cylinder is the area of the circle times the length.
The area of the outside wall of cylinder is the circumference of the bottom (2 Pi R) times the height (so a cylinder 2R high is 4 Pi R, the same as a sphere fitted inside! thanks Terry Harper) Add the area of the top and bottom for total area of a cylinder.

Wire packing showing 5 wires around 1 smaller.If 6 wires are bound together, the hole in the middle (7th or core wire) is exactly the same size.
If 5 wires are bound together, the core is 0.707 of the wire size. (to right)
If 4 wires are bound together, the core is 0.407 of the wire size.
3 wires bound together are stable, but if desired a core wire of 0.151 will fit inside.

 

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THICK & THICKER
This table of thicknesses and diameters attempts to combine information from a number of sources (including tables above and below) to give a feeling for thickness.

            The actual thickness of regular aluminum foil is 0.001625cm & the thickness of heavy duty foil is 0.002362cm.

Some Fractional Sizes
 [derived numbers in brackets]
Inch Metric (mm) Comment Source
[0.0000000039]

0.0000001

1 Angstrom (10^-10 meter) (measures atoms) Calc
0.00000333

[0.00008]

Gold Leaf (1/300,000 inch] Antique
[0.0000232]

0.0005890

Sodium yellow (visible spectrum about 4300-6900A). Web
0.0001

[0.00254mm]

One ten thousandth of an inch Calc
[0.000315]

0.0080000

Blood Cell (dia.) Web
[0.00039] 0.010 Smallest drill bit [see below] Table
[0.00043] 0.011 Light aluminum foil (11 microns, HD=13-15) Web
[0.00075] 0.019 VHS video tape (T-120) Web
0.001 [0.0254] Thinnest commonly available shim stock Store
[0.00276] 0.070 Human hair diameter (17-181 microns) Web site
[0.00394] 0.100 Sheet of 20# bond paper (100 microns) Web site
0.007 [0.1778] Tag 100# paper (file folder)  
0.010 [0.254] Ten Thousandths - "Quarter" Millimeter Calc
0.012 [0.3048] 30 gage insulin needle Web site
0.013 [0.3302] Wire on a cheese cutter Store exper.
0.0135 [0.3429] #80 - smallest commonly available drill bit Table
0.014 [0.3556] 28 gage insulin needle Web site
0.01 0.254mm one hundredth of an inch Calc
0.011 [0.03 mm] Tagboard "file folder" thin 150# cardboard Web site
0.015625 [0.396875] 1/64 inch (one sixty-fourth) Calc
0.023 (0.58 mm) Notepad backing cardboard Web site
0.03125 [0.79375] 1/32 one thirty-second inch Calc
[0.03937]

1.0

1 mm (1 millimeter) (5/128" or 1/25" closely) Calc
0.0400 [1.016] #60 bit Table
0.040 [1.016] Microslide glass ASTM-C 1032
0.05082 1.291 16 gauge steel wire Table

0.0598

[1.51892] 16 gauge steel sheet (nominal, done by weight) Table

0.0625

[1.5875] 1/16th inch (one sixteenth) Calc
0.0700 [1.778] #50 bit Table
0.0808 [2.052] 12 gauge copper wire AWG
0.090 [2.286] Single strength glass ASTM-C 1032
0.120 [3.048] Double strength glass ASTM-C 1032
0.125 [3.175] 1/8th inch (one eighth) Calc

0.1285

[3.264] 8 gauge copper electrical wire AWG

0.25

[6.35] 1/4 inch (one fourth) Calc

[0.3937]

10.0 Ten millimeters = 1 Centimeter Calc
1.000 25.40 Exact by legal definition 1 inch=25.4 mm Calc

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The smallest bit I have seen in a good store is a #80 (0.0135) while the Table shows down to a #97 (0.0059") and a metric to 0.010 mm (0.00039) Alan Notis has been good enough to send me this link http://www.madison.k12.wi.us/toki/codrills.htm which shows sizes down to 107 0.0019  and this site http://www.ukam.com/micro_core_drills.htm with diamond bits down to 0.001 which are to be spun at 150,000 rpm or MORE and have a feed rate of 0.010" per minute or 1" in 100 minutes. 2004-06-28

 Pipe Sizes Link

 

SHEET METAL GAUGE THICKNESS
The data in this table, which represents industry standard information, was extracted from a table at Sheet Metal Gauge Charts http://www.engineersedge.com/gauge.htm which contains additional information and links to other useful information. [Note that at least for steel sheet, actual gauge is based on weight per square foot, not a measured thickness. More detail]
As a starting point when approximating, I use 16 gauge, which is approximately 1/16th (.0625) in steel.

Gauge
Num.
Non-Ferrous
Brown & Sharp
Steel Sheets Strip & Tubing
Birmingham or Stubs
lbs./Sq. ft.
1100,6061
Aluminum
Gauge Decimal lbs./Sq. ft.
Alloy 260
Brass
Gauge
Decimal
lbs./Sq. ft.
Steel Strip
Gauge Decimal lbs./Sq. ft.
Steel Strip
4 - 0.2043 - 0.2242 9.146 0.238 9.71
5 - 0.1819 - 0.2092 8.534 0.220 8.975
6 2.286 0.162 7.185 0.1943 7.926 0.203 8.281
7 2.036 0.1443 6.400 0.1793 7.315 0.180 7.343
8 1.813 0.1285 5.699 0.1644 6.707 0.165 6.731
9 1.614 0.1144 5.074 0.1495 6.099 0.148 6.038
10 1.438 0.1019 4.520 0.1345 5.487 0.134 5.467
11 1.28 0.0907 4.023 0.1196 4.879 0.120 4.895
12 1.14 0.0808 3.584 0.1046 4.267 0.109 4.447
13 1.016 0.0720 3.193 0.0897 3.659 0.095 3.876
14 0.905 0.0641 2.843 0.0747 3.047 0.083 3.386
15 0.806 0.0571 2.532 0.0673 2.746 0.072 2.937
16 0.717 0.0508 2.253 0.0598 2.440 0.065 2.652
17 0.639 0.0453 2.009 0.0538 2.195 0.058 2.366
18 0.569 0.0403 1.787 0.0478 1.950 0.049 1.999
19 0.507 0.0359 1.592 0.0418 1.705 0.042 1.713
20 0.452 0.0320 1.419 0.0359 1.465 0.035 1.428
21 0.402 0.0285 1.264 0.0329 1.342 0.032 1.305
22 0.357 0.0253 1.122 0.0299 1.220 0.028 1.142
23 0.319 0.0226 1.002 0.0269 1.097 0.025 1.020
24 0.284 0.0201 0.892 0.0239 0.975 0.022 0.898
25 0.253 0.0179 0.794 0.0209 0.853 0.020 0.816
26 0.224 0.0159 0.705 0.0179 0.730 0.018 0.734

One story I have seen says that the wire gauge numbers are the relative position of the dies used to pull the wire.  Thus the first die would pull 1 gauge wire (0.2803 in table below), the fifth draws 5 gauge (0.1819"), and so on.  Not all gauges are easily available, especially the odd numbers.  Of course, in the past there were different gauge tables for different companies and countries. 2003-07-31

U.S. Standard Wire Gauge Sizes http://www.graphicproducts.com/supplies/wire_gauge.html

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U.S. STANDARD WIRE GAUGE

Gauge No. Diameter
inches
Diameter
mm
  Gauge No. Diameter
inches
Diameter
mm
  Gauge No. Diameter
inches
Diameter
mm
  Gauge No. Diameter
inches
Diameter
mm
0000 0.4600 11.68   8 0.1285 3.264   19 0.03589 0.9116   30 0.01003 0.2548
000 0.4096 10.40   9 0.1144 2.906   20 0.03196 0.8118   31 0.008928 0.2268
00 0.3648 9.206   10 0.1019 2.588   21 0.02846 0.7229   32 0.007950 0.2019
0 0.3249 8.252   11 0.09074 2.305   22 0.02535 0.6439   33 0.007080 0.1798
1 0.2803 7.348   12 0.08081 2.053   23 0.02257 0.5733   34 0.006305 0.1601
2 0.2576 6.543   13 0.07196 1.828   24 0.2010 0.5105   35 0.005615 0.1426
3 0.2294 5.827   14 0.06408 1.628   25 0.01790 0.4547   36 0.005000 0.1270
4 0.2043 5.189   15 0.05707 1.450   26 0.01594 0.4049   37 0.004453 0.1131
5 0.1819 4.620   16 0.05082 1.291   27 0.01420 0.3607   38 0.003965 0.1007
6 0.1620 4.115   17 0.04526 1.150   28 0.01264 0.3211   39 0.003531 0.08969
7 0.1443 3.665   18 0.04030 1.024   29 0.01120 0.2845   40 0.003145 0.07988

 

PROPANE & GAS SPECS
This site Illinois Propane Gas Association - BTU Content Comparisons [link gone] has the following and more. Note that the table puts Natural Gas at 1000 Btu/cu.ft., but other sites give a number just above or below 1030 and this appears closer to what was used in the government figures further down. Note that this is fairly sloppy, some figures refer to Propane when they appear to refer to physical units.

BTU Content Comparisons

Energy Source BTU Content
Propane 91,547 per gallon [2516/cu.ft.below]
Natural Gas 1000 per cubic foot
Electricity 3,412 per Kilowatt Hour
#1 Fuel Oil 136,000 per gallon
#2 Fuel Oil 138,500 per gallon
#3 Fuel Oil 141,000 per gallon
Conversion Units
Multiply by To obtain
Volume Propane    
Gallons (US) 0.1337 cubic feet
Gallons (US) 3.785 liters
Gallons (US) 231 cubic inches
Miscellaneous    
Cubic feet 2516 BTU
Therm 100,000 BTU
Decitherm 10,000 BTU
Pounds 21,591 LPG BTU
Gallons of Propane 26.9 KWH
API Barrels 42 gallons (US)
Kilowatt Hours 3412 BTU
Gallons of propane 4.24 pounds

Energy Costs for 2001

The U. S. Dept. of Energy has published its revised average representative costs for five residential energy sources — electricity, natural gas heating oil, propane, and kerosene (Federal Register, March 8, 2001). As required by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, these representative costs are updated annually. Compared with last year, the representative cost of propane, per million BTU, is forecast to rise 12 percent, while the cost of heating oil is forecast to rise 12.7 percent and the cost of natural gas is forecast to rise 21.7 percent.

Representative energy costs, 2001

Energy Source 2001 Cost Per Unit 2001 Cost per Million BTU's [dekatherm] 2005 Prices Reported on Craftweb Mid-November  
Electricity 8.29 cents/kwh $24.30    
Natural Gas 83.7 cents/therm
Or $8.63/Mcf
$8.37 I just opened my natural gas bill. The price went up from $6.985 per Dekatherm last month to $11.044 this month.  
#2 Heating Oil $1.23/gallon $8.86    
Propane $1.03/gallon $11.28 $1.14 per gallon of propane up from .94 in august
I paid $1.60 per gallon of propane last week whilst filling my 1000 gallon tank. B-K Grain and Propane out of Enid, OK.
$2.61 per gallon in 100# tanks, vs 3.61 if less than 30 gallons purchased MF in Dallas
 
Kerosene $1.27/gallon $9.41    

KWh = kilowatt hour
Therm = 100,000 Btu
Mcf = 1,000 cubic feet

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Propane burns at 2.1% to 9.5% in air. [ http://www.scitoys.com/scitoys/scitoys/thermo/thermo2.html ]
Propane stoichiometric air-gas ratio of 23.81:1 by volume [4.20%], 15.25:1 by weight [graph table on this page: 
http://www.process-heating.com/CDA/ArticleInformation/Energy_Notes_Item/0,3271,84749,00.html ]
The stoichiometric ratio is the one where all the gas is burned and all the oxygen  is used - the perfect ratio.  This is saying that for each cubic foot of propane, 23.18 cubic feet of air is required; for each pound of propane 15.25 pounds of air is required.  Since a cubic foot of gas yields 2516 Btu, one can multiply or divide to find the air needed per minute from the Btuh needed to get the blower or pipe capacity.  As a simple example, 150,960 Btuh is the result of burning 60 cubic feet of gas per hour, or 1 per minute, which would need 23.18 cubic feet of air per minute, or about half the capacity of a 40 cfm blower.

The Btu (British Thermal Unit) is the amount heat needed to raise one pound of water 1 degree Fahrenheit (if absorbed completely)  The Btuh or Btu/h (Btu's/hour) is the number of Btu's needed or generated in one hour.  The metric system units would be calories and kilocalories per second.  One Btu equals just under 252 calories. [http://www.unc.edu/~rowlett/units/dictB.html ]

Increased efficiency of condensing gas furnaces calculated - here

Pressure & Flow

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